The technology research firm, IDC, issued a new study in March 2007 that estimates that the world in 2006 generated a total of 161 exabytes -- that's 161 billion gigabytes -- of digital information. And they forecast that that figure will increase to 988 exabytes -- or almost 1 zettabyte -- by 2010.  -- Source: Brian Bergstein, The Associated Press [as published in The Oregonian, March 6, 2007]

Confused by terms like “bytes” and “Gigabit” and “kilobyte” and “mbps” and the like?

Just to cut to the chase, let's start with understanding the difference between "bits" and "bytes" (note that EONI internet plans are expressed in terms of bits):

The Difference between a Megabyte (MB) and a Megabit (Mb)

One thing that often gives people confusion is the difference between a Megabyte (used for file size) and a Megabit (used for download speeds). People often assume that a download speed of 1 Megabit per second (1 Mbps) will allow them to download a 1 Megabyte file in one second. This is not the case, a Megabit is 1/8 as big as a Megabyte, meaning that to download a 1MB file in 1 second you would need a connection of 8Mbps. The difference between a Gigabyte (GB) and a Gigabit (Gb) is the same, with a Gigabyte being 8 times larger than a Gigabit.


To help you sort this stuff out in more detail, let’s first declare that there are TWO kinds of measurements we need to make in our world of computing and networking:

1. Storage and Memory Capacities

File size is how big a file is on your computer. How much your hard disk can hold is a measure of the aggregate theoretical file sizes it can accommodate. RAM – random access memory – is also measured in terms of such capacity. This kind of measure is usually expressed in terms of various forms of “bytes”, such as “kilobytes” or “megabytes” or “gigabytes”.

A “byte”, for our purposes, is equivalent to a single “character” in your word processing document, for example.

In this context, a kilobyte – because it is based on binary arithmetic that is at the heart of computer operations – represents 1,024 bytes (that is, it equals 2 to the power of 10). Thus,

1 KB (one KiloByte) = 1,024 Bytes (roughly 1 thousand Bytes)
1 MB (one MegaByte) = 1,024 KB (roughly 1 million Bytes)
1 GB (one GigaByte) = 1,024 MB (roughly 1 billion Bytes )
1 TB (one TeraByte) = 1,024 GB (roughly 1 trillion Bytes)

2. Date Transfer Speed

On the other hand, data communication rates are expressed in terms of “bits”. You should know that EONI Internet access rates, whether for dialup, wireless or DSL, are based on bits, as in “kilobits” and “megabits”. And these are presented in terms of rates, usually as bits per second. For example:

1 kbps = 1,000 bits per second
1 Mbps = 1,000,000 bits per second
1 Gbps = 1,000,000,000 bits per second

These kind of measurements are expressed in decimal terms, that is, powers of 10, whereas storage and memory capacities as we indicated earlier, are usually expressed in binary, or powers of 2.


This is where many of us start getting into trouble. The general rule is determined by whether the abbreviations are expressed in uppercase or in lowercase. Therefore:

K (uppercase) = 1,024
k (lowercase) = 1,000
B (uppercase) = Bytes
b (lowercase) = bits

Like all good rules, however, expect to see them frequently broken, even by technical people who should know better. But it is not necessarily a great crime to express things in “rough” 1000-based units rather than the precise power of 2 where that applies, if we are just trying to indicate approximate relative differences.

Because there is such confusion and inconsistency in how these measurements are expressed, a newer scheme of terminology is coming into practice by international standards bodies. Under this scheme, measurements that are based on powers of 2 (binary) are recommended to be named as follows, shown in contrast with their decimal “equivalents”:

kilobyte kB 10^3 kibibyte KiB 2^10
megabyte MB 10^6 mebibyte MiB 2^20
gigabyte GB 10^9 gibibyte GiB 2^30
terabyte TB 10^12 tebibyte TiB 2^40
petabyte PB 10^15 pebibyte PiB 2^50
exabyte EB 10^18 exbibyte EiB 2^60
zettabyte ZB 10^21 zebibyte ZiB 2^70
yottabyte YB 10^24 yobibyte YiB 2^80

Converting Values

To begin with, the simple formula expressing the relationship between bits and bytes is:

1 byte = 8 bits

(A single bit is a mathematical construct that we use to tell us whether an electrical signal is on (represented by 1) or off (represented by 0). If you want to learn more about how things work at that level, you can explore the topic in many computer technical texts in libraries, classrooms and – of course – published all over the Internet.)

So, based on this formula, if we start with values stated as Bytes, and want to convert to bit-rates, we simply need to multiply the number of Bytes by 8. (Why would you want to convert between “apples” and “oranges”, that is, between Capacities and Transfer Rates? Well, it is not uncommon to see figures which intend to measure, say, traffic statistics, which might want to reflect how much data – in binary-based storage units – can be moved over time; for example, kilobytes of data per second, or KB/s) And to derive KB/s (which would be the ratio of KiloBytes per second) from bit rates, you will have to divide the total bits by 8, then divide the result by 1,024 (see In Practical Terms, below).

Consider the EONI Speed Test: Speeds are reported as kbps (kilobits per second) along with the KB/sec (kilobytes per second) transfer rate. For example, a fast, high-bandwidth connection might show a test result like this:

Download Speed: 8767 kbps (1095.9 KB/sec transfer rate)
Upload Speed: 7638 kbps (954.8 KB/sec transfer rate)

If you divide the kbps figure by the KB/sec figure, you will see that it approximates (or rounds off to) the value of … 8!

If you really want to take these kinds of calculation further, you would find that:

kbps* 0.1220703125 = KB/s

In Practical Terms

What you probably really want to do is to figure out things like, on your particular connection, how fast you can download a file of a particular size.

(First, you should keep in mind that the nominal rating for your connection refers to its theoretical maximum, best-case capability, and in “real life” will be influenced and limited by many factors, such the quality of your telephone lines, atmospheric conditions, foliage for wireless connections, server performance at external sites, moon phase and your zodiac sign and much more.)

The basics of your calculation would start with something like this:

[K] KiloBytes * 1,024 = [t] total Bytes
[t] total Bytes * 8 = [b] bits
[b] bits / 1,000 = [k] kilobits

… which is the flip side of:

[k] kilobits per second * 1,000= [b] total bits per second
[b] bits / 8 = [t] total Bytes per second
[t] / 1,024 = [K] KiloBytes per second.

For example, looking at the EONI Bronze Residential Plan, nominally rated at 1Mbs/256Kbs, we can find that its maximum download transfer rate would be about 122 KB/sec, and maximum upload transfer rate would be about 31 KB/sec. This may be mathematically expressed as follows:

  • Basic Formula:
    Compute total bits, then divide by 8, then divide by 1024
  • Upload:
  • Download:
    ((256*1000)/8)/1024= 31.25

In summary …

If 1 KB (KiloByte) = 1,024 Bytes 
 Then 1 KB = 8,192 bits 

And 1 MB (MegaByte) = 1,024 KiloBytes 
  Or 1 MB (MegaByte) = 1,048,576 Bytes (i.e., 1024 x 1024) 
  And 1 GB (GigaByte) = 1,073,741,824 Bytes (i.e., 1024 x 1024 x 1024) 

But if 1 mb = one million bits or one thousand kb 
  Then 1 mbps (bit rate) = one million bits per second 
  And 1 gbps (bit rate) = one billion bits per second

Have you cleared the Internet cache?

1.  For IE, depending on which version you are using, click on Tools then Internet options or View Internet Options.
  Now click on Delete files.

2.  For Firefox or Google Chrome, hold the shift key on the keyboard and press the reload button (the blue button with an arrow going in a circle).

Customers using high speed EONI wireless or EONI DSL to connect to the Internet may have some special reasons why their high-speed Internet connection is slower than expected.

Frequently customers with EONI high speed services use a router and/or firewall that is placed between the Internet and the customer's computer(s). The router/firewall often have brand names like Linksys, NetGear, D-Link, Cisco, Asus, Buffalo, TP-Link, Monoprice, or SonicWall on them.

Here are some things to check:

1. Try shutting down all of your computers and unplugging your power cord to your router/firewall for 5 minutes. Then, reconnect power to your router/firewall, wait at least 3 minutes and then turn on your computer.

2. Do you have wires that connect your computer(s) at your location to the router/firewall or are you using some wireless connections inside your location to connect to the Internet. If you are using wireless connections within your location you should verify your wireless access point (AP) at your location is secured to prevent neighbors or people outside from accessing your network (who may access your files and other network systems without your knowledge) and using your Internet connection. Most AP are set to have NO security on them out of the box. This makes it easy for you to connect...but too easy for unauthorized people to connect and use your connection, slowing it down for you. Many makers of router/firewall units offer no charge technical support directly to you to help you secure your wireless networks. Try contacting the maker of your equipment...or you may hire EONI to do this work for you. If you are connected wirelessly to a router/firewall, it is possible that you may have a signal or interference problem between your computer and your router/firewall. EONI's free technical support does not cover troubleshooting the cause of signal strength or interference issues between your computer and router/firewall. Again, try contacting the maker of your equipment...or you may hire EONI to do this work for you.

3. Do you have more than one computer sharing your Internet connection? If so, try turning those other computers off and only using one computer to test the speed of your Internet connection.

4. Are all of your computers up-to-date with anti-virus, anti-spyware and operating system updates (like Microsoft Windows Update)? If you cannot say yes to all three of these questions you may have a computer that is infected with something that is utilizing a large percentage of your Internet connection causing your computer(s) to operate slower than expected.

For helpful tips on Internet safety, please see:
EONI SafetyZone

Some users report that they are unable to complete certain network activities (such as send emails with certain attachments or FTP some files) using an EONI PPPoE connection.

Many users have found that they are able to resolve these problems by running cmtutool.exe on their affected Windows computer. 

After running this tool you will be prompted to enter the maximum transfer unit (MTU) your networking interfaces should be using. Try entering 576 to start.

The tool then updates your Windows operating system registry to adjust the MTU on all network interfaces in your computer to the number you specify. 


After rebooting, connect to the Internet and see if the network activity that was giving you trouble works. 

If you find after a reboot the problems persist try re-running the tool and enter 256, wait for the tool to finish, reboot, and then try again.

If you could be so kind as to reply to this email and let us know if this tool helped you and which MTU value corrected your problem we would really appreciate it.

Click here to download the tool

To learn more about what MTU is please see this link: 
MTU defined

1.  What are the settings for the display? (Colors, and resolution.)

Make sure that your display settings are setup so that the colors and resolution 
of the monitor are set in such a way that the Graphics will display correctly.Click 
on Start.Click on settings.Click on Control Panel.Double click on display.Click 
on the Settings tab. Make sure that the colors are set for at least high color 
(16bit).If you cannot set it for this, then your video card or monitor may not 
be able to handle the higher color or resolutions settings that much of today’s 
Internet content is designed for.

2.  Check Internet options.For IE click on start.Click on settings.Click 
on Control Panel.Double click on Internet Options or Internet depending on the 
version you are using.Now click on the Advanced tab.Click on the Restore defaults 
button.Now click OK and you should be done.

If you are unable to send email because of this error message, "Relaying Denied", There are a few settings that you may want to look at.

Outlook Express Users:

If you are trying to send email using Outlook Express.

1. Click on Tools on the toolbar at the top of Outlook Express.

2. Choose Accounts.

3. Click on the Mail tab atop this window


4. Click on the Server tab atop the new window

5. Check the box that say My Server Requires Authentication.

6. Click OK, Then click Close


Eudora Users:

1. Click on Tools on the toolbar.

2. Choose Options.

3. Click on Getting Started.

4. Check the box on the right side that says Allow Authentication.


If you are using a different email client besides the two listen above, please give us a call at 1.800.785.7873. We will be more than happy to help.

Try finding a location for your zip code by browsing to Environment, Health and Safety Online.
Click here for additional information.

An excellent list of guidelines that all computer and Internet users should keep in mind might include those that David Pogue of the New York Times set forth in his 
October 2, 2008, blog
. Follow these tips and you will be off to a great start in making your computing experience safer, more efficient, and more effective!

Also click here for "5 Things Every Computer User Needs to Know How to Do"

Go to the EONI HELP page. (Find the Help link on the top banner menu of the header at the very top of every site page.) Click on the link to do this.

1.  If you are using MS Internet Explorer there is a link on our Help 
page that will do this for you. Just click on it and you are done. 

2. For Firefox, click on the Firefox button (or if you have an older version, Tools and then Options). "Show my homepage" for the "When Firefox starts". Then enter "" under "Home Page".

3. For Google Chrome, click the wrench (or three horizontal lines, aka "the hamburger") icon in the upper right corner, and then click settings. Under the "On startup" section, make sure you pick "Open a specific page or set of pages". Then click "Set pages". Where it says "Enter URL..." in faint letters, type "" and then click OK.
Click here for additional information.

Due to increases in worm, virus and other security intrusions EONI has implemented port blocking of specific network ports.

Customers who have network applications that use these ports should use a virtual private network (VPN) or other security system to allow safe use of these ports.

In addition these ports are blocked so that customers infected with worms or viruses are not as likely to spread these to others on the Internet.

The ports blocked by EONI should not be considered as a firewall. Customers are encouraged to carefully select a comprehensive security solution to protect their systems.
Blocked ports outbound (on the way to the Internet from EONI customers)

TCP and UDP ports:
19 (UDP only)
25 (see below)
Blocked ports inbound (on the way to EONI customers from the Internet)

TCP and UDP ports:
19 (UDP only)

Customers are strongly encouraged to use a firewall to protect their systems from the Internet. The ports listed above should not be considered a complete security solution for anyone.

Are you receiving email but not able to send email? Please read on.

Typically email software uses a POP3 server to receive email and a SMTP server to send email.

SMTP normally uses TCP port 25.

Outgoing connections on TCP port 25 are blocked by many Internet Service Providers including EONI. If you need to send email from the EONI network please consider using one of these options: 

1. Find out if you can use as your outgoing SMTP server. If you are using an email service not provided by EONI then you may need to contact the email help desk of your other provider to confirm that using the as your outgoing email server will not cause email policy violations. In some cases the use of an alternate SMTP server may cause the email to appear to be coming from a forged or otherwise invalid source.

2. Does your other email service provider have an alternate port (something other than 25) that you can use to contact your SMTP server? Most email server providers accept outgoing email on port 25, and may also have other port numbers available as well to address the common policy of blocked port 25. Contact your email service provider to see if they offer an alternate SMTP server port number you can use. If they do you will usually change 25 to the port number your email service provider tells you to use in the advanced settings of your email server account settings.

3. If you have your own email server (such as Microsoft Exchange), see if your email server supports the use of a "smart host" option. Smart host usually means that when your email server needs to send an outgoing email the server will deliver the email to the smart host rather than looking up and delivering directly to the destination mail server. By using as the smart host you can deliver the email to EONI's outgoing email server.

4. See if your non-EONI mail server provider offers a VPN, tunneling protocol, or other way to make a connection to the alternate outgoing email server you need to use.

5. If you have exhausted all resources above, you can order a static IP address from EONI (single static IP address is $7.50 per month with a $15 setup charge) and we can make an exception in our port 25 blockage policy for your account. We hope that one of the above options will work to get your outgoing email sent without having to resort to getting a static IP address. The static IP address allows us to identify your SMTP traffic on a consistent basis allowing us to make the exception.

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